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The sabre is a one handed sword designed for cutting with a curved blade which has a single edge for the most part, but has an often wider double edged lower part of the blade. A curved blade offers increased cutting effect and also a longer cutting edge compared with a straight bladed sword. The origins of the sabre come from the nomadic horsemen such as the Mongols, and has throughout history been associated with horsemen. earliest archaeological evidence is from the 6th century Avars who raided the Franconian and Byzantine Empires. With their defeat the sabre seemed to disappear only to make a come back two centuries later with the Hungarian tribes. The widespread use of the sabre in the Turkish empire of the 14th century brought the weapon greater fame and widespread use. From the 16th century it became associated with light cavalry and this association was to continue during the Napoleonic wars where sabres were used by light cavalry such as light dragoons and Hussars and became something of a status symbol in many Eastern Europe countries and for a time in Russia. The sabre remained in service for considerable time and was later seen as an officers weapon with a separate infantry sabre evolving.

Saber-toothed cat

A saber-toothed cat (alternatively spelled sabre-toothed cat [1] ) is any member of various extinct groups of predatory mammals that are characterized by long, curved saber-shaped canine teeth which protruded from the mouth when closed. The saber-toothed cats have been found almost worldwide from the Eocene epoch to the end of the Pleistocene epoch 42 million years ago (mya) – 11,000 years ago (kya). [2] [3] [4]

One of the best-known genera is Smilodon, the species of which, especially S. fatalis, are popularly, but incorrectly, referred to as "saber-toothed tigers". However, usage of the word cat is in some cases a misnomer, as many species referred to as saber-toothed "cats" are not closely related to modern cats (Felidae). Instead, many members are classified into different families of Feliformia, such as Barbourofelidae and Nimravidae [5] the oxyaenid "creodont" genera Machaeroides and Apataelurus and two extinct lineages of metatherian mammals, the thylacosmilids of Sparassodonta, and deltatheroideans, which are more closely related to marsupials. In this regard, these saber-toothed mammals can be viewed as examples of convergent evolution. [6] This convergence is remarkable due not only to the development of elongated canines, but also a suite of other characteristics, such as a wide gape and bulky forelimbs, which is so consistent that it has been termed the "saber-tooth suite." [7]

Of the feliform lineages, the family Nimravidae is the oldest, entering the landscape around 42 mya and becoming extinct by 7.2 mya. Barbourofelidae entered around 16.9 mya and were extinct by 9 mya. These two would have shared some habitats.

Sky Sabre is a point defence and local area defence missile designed to respond to sophisticated missile attacks and has the capability to defend against saturation attacks of supersonic anti-ship cruise missiles, aircraft and other high-performance targets. [7] It does this via multiple channels of fire, providing 360-degree simultaneous coverage and high degrees of manoeuvrability. MBDA states that Sky Sabre has a "high rate of fire against multiple simultaneous targets", [23] providing capabilities comparable to the Aster 15 missile.

On land, CAMM is known as Land Ceptor by the British Army and the whole land-based air defence system is known as Sky Sabre. Ε] The system has over three times the range of its predecessor Rapier. Ζ]

For international customers, MBDA markets the "Enhanced Modular Air Defence Solutions (EMADS)." This is a rapidly deployable point and area defence system designed to protect mobile and static high value assets. It provides all-weather protection against air targets, including low level terrain and high altitude threats. Each EMADS launcher is scalable and can carry multiple CAMM or CAMM-ER missiles as well as being mobile with off-road capability. The system provides EMADS with pre-launch targeting information based on track data from a suitable radar sensor. Η] ⎖]

Press Releases

Sabre partners with GOPASS Global to mitigate travel risks while increasing confidence to travel

SOUTHLAKE, Texas – June 15, 2021 –Sabre Corporation (NASDAQ: SABR), a leading software and technology provider that powers the global travel industry, has partnered with travel risk management platform GOPASS Global to help deliver its game-changing COVID-19 biosecurity risk.

Sabre Montevideo increases its emphasis in technology to deliver value to the travel ecosystem

MONTEVIDEO, Uruguay – June 9, 2021 – Sabre Corporation (NASDAQ: SABR), a leading software and technology provider that powers the global travel industry, announced today the growth of the Montevideo center, adding technology development roles – an important step in.

ITL World chooses Sabre to deploy its technology strategy

SOUTHLAKE, Texas and DUBAI, UAE – June 7, 2021 – Award-winning travel management company with operations across the GCC & India, ITL World has signed a new multi-year agreement with Sabre Corporation (NASDAQ: SABR), the leading software.

Sabre Corporation (SABR)

Sabre's (SABR) partnership with GOPASS will help travel agents within its global distribution system see the biosecurity risk of each travel option stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic.

Place A Bag On Your Car Mirror When Traveling

Brilliant Car Cleaning Hacks Local Dealers Wish You Didn’t Know

Sabre partners with GOPASS Global to mitigate travel risks while increasing confidence to travel

Sabre Corporation (NASDAQ: SABR), a leading software and technology provider that powers the global travel industry, has partnered with travel risk management platform GOPASS Global to help deliver its game-changing COVID-19 biosecurity risk analytics capabilities to the travel industry.

Sabre Cutting A Path Towards A Key Technical Benchmark

The Relative Strength (RS) Rating for Sabre headed into a new percentile Friday, as it got a lift from 68 to 76. When looking for the best stocks to buy and watch, one factor to watch closely is relative price strength. See if Sabre can continue to show renewed price strength and hit that benchmark.

Sabre (SABR) Up 18.6% Since Last Earnings Report: Can It Continue?

Sabre (SABR) reported earnings 30 days ago. What's next for the stock? We take a look at earnings estimates for some clues.

Sabre sees May air bookings down 62% from 2019

Sabre Corp. disclosed Thursday that May air booking were down 62% from the same month in 2019, as global travel trends continue negatively affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The travel and tourism services provider said passengers boarded were down 44%. Meanwhile, hotel bookings have seen the "strongest improvement," with gross hotel central reservation system transactions down 35%. The stock rose 0.1% in premarket trading, to buck the selloff in the broader stock market, as futures for the S&P

Mom's Payback - She Bought Neighbor's Property

After so much drama and many police visits, she got the upper hand. Who would’ve thought that a small piece of paper has such power?

Sabre Partners with BYHOURS to Tap New Hospitality Industry Trend

Sabre Corporation (SABR) has noticed the growing demand for hotel microstays and is moving to tap into that opportunity. Sabre provides travel technology used by airlines, travel agencies, and hotels to run operations such as booking and check-in. To that end, it has teamed up with Spanish company BYHOURS to introduce the ability to book hotel rooms by the hour to its community. Launched in 2012, BYHOURS operates a platform for hotel microstays. Hotels use its platform to offer hourly packages to people looking for short stays. The idea is that hourly packages provide people with flexibility in hotel reservations and can save them money. The partnership opens up BYHOURS’ platform to travel agents that use Sabre’s system so they can sell hotel rooms by the hour. Demand for microstays has increased since the COVID-19 pandemic struck. Sabre says that the BYHOURS deal will let its agency community access the hotel visits that their customers demand. (See Sabre stock analysis on TipRanks) “We are excited to provide Sabre-connected travel agencies the ability to further personalize the customer experience with BYHOURS’ unique microstay content,” said Traci Mercer, head of the product segment at Sabre Travel Solutions. As companies adopt remote work, people are looking for flexible spaces to work or conduct important meetings. Sabre counts on the BYHOURS arrangement to address this demand and generate more value for its community. On the back of Sabre’s first-quarter results, in which revenue fell short of expectations, Oppenheimer analyst Jed Kelly assigned Sabre stock a Hold rating without a price target. “COVID-19 is severely impacting travel demand and creating structural challenges in forecasting earnings. Therefore, we wait for the industry to stabilize and earnings visibility to improve before recommending shares,” noted Kelly. Consensus among analysts on Wall Street is a Hold based on 3 Hold ratings. The average analyst price target of $14.50 implies 7.41% upside potential to the current price. SABR scores a 7 out of 10 on TipRanks’ Smart Score rating system, indicating that the stock’s returns are likely to align with the market's performance. Related News:Amazon Tables $8.45B Acquisition Bid for MGMSony’s Strategic Investments to Cost $18B in 3 YearsPayPal Invests $50M in Overlooked Entrepreneurs More recent articles from Smarter Analyst: NetEase Spinning Off Music Streaming Unit for Hong Kong IPO Mondelez to Acquire Chipita for $2B, Expand Bakery Portfolio Workday Beats Analysts’ Expectations in Q1 Shares Down Allscripts to Buy Back $350M in Stock Shares Jump 5%

Sabre teams up with BYHOURS to distribute hotel microstays and support the recovery of hospitality

Sabre Corporation (NASDAQ: SABR), the leading software and technology provider that powers the global travel industry, and BYHOURS, the leading international platform for hotel microstays, have signed a new agreement to provide Sabre's agency community with relevant content that will allow them to sell rooms by the hour through the BYHOURS' Sabre Red App.

Radixx Launches into Rail Industry in Partnership with the U.S.'s Only High-Speed Rail Company, Brightline, To Support Florida Network

Radixx, a Sabre company and leading airline retailing software provider, today announced the company has entered into a partnership with Brightline, the only private high-speed passenger rail system in the United States. The entrance into the rail market comes at a time when there is significant opportunity in domestic travel options as Americans look for alternatives to flying and driving, and are seeking more sustainable travel options.

American Airlines says technical issue at Sabre hit operations

American Airlines said on Friday that travel technology firm Sabre Corp had a technical issue that impacted multiple carriers, including its own. American Airlines said the technical issue had been resolved. Virgin Australia, which also uses Sabre's technology for air bookings, said in a tweet earlier on Friday its flights were impacted by a global system outage, which was affecting its check-in and boarding systems.

Was The Smart Money Right About Sabre Corporation (SABR)?

We know that hedge funds generate strong, risk-adjusted returns over the long run, therefore imitating the picks that they are collectively bullish on can be a profitable strategy for retail investors. With billions of dollars in assets, smart money investors have to conduct complex analyses, spend many resources and use tools that are not always […]

Sabre (SABR) Tumbles 14% on Wider-Than-Expected Loss in Q1

Sabre's (SABR) Q1 results hurt by significant reductions in air, hotel and other travel bookings due to the pandemic's adverse impact on the global travel industry.

Sabre Corp (SABR) Q1 2021 Earnings Call Transcript

SABR earnings call for the period ending March 31, 2021.

Why Sabre Stock Got Crushed Today

The travel technology provider reports first-quarter earnings that were impacted by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

Sabre (SABR) Reports Q1 Loss, Misses Revenue Estimates

Sabre (SABR) delivered earnings and revenue surprises of -41.18% and -24.02%, respectively, for the quarter ended March 2021. Do the numbers hold clues to what lies ahead for the stock?

Sabre's first quarter 2021 earnings materials available on its Investor Relations website

Sabre Corporation ("Sabre") (NASDAQ: SABR) today announced financial results for the quarter ended March 31, 2021. Sabre has posted its first quarter 2021 earnings release, earnings presentation and prepared remarks to its Investor Relations webpage at The earnings release is also available on the Securities and Exchange Commission's website at

Delta Air Lines and Sabre Sign Transformative Agreement to Drive Value Creation

Today, Delta Air Lines and Sabre announced a transformative global distribution agreement that will evolve their long-standing partnership and drive change in the travel industry through commercial and technological innovation. The new, value-based, multi-year distribution agreement represents an industry-first model that creates value for the entire travel ecosystem, including travel agencies and travelers.

Sabre declares dividend on mandatory convertible preferred stock

Sabre Corporation (NASDAQ: SABR) today announced that its Board of Directors has declared a dividend of $1.625 per share on its 6.50% Series A Mandatory Convertible Preferred Stock. The dividend is payable on June 1, 2021 to holders of record of the mandatory convertible preferred stock as of the close of business on May 15, 2021.

Radixx Announces Security Incident Impacting Radixx Res™

Radixx, a subsidiary of Sabre Corporation (NASDAQ: SABR), that serves the low-cost airline carrier segment, today announced that Radixx Res™ has experienced an event impacting its Radixx reservation system. The company is in the process of restoring service to the approximately 20 Radixx airline customers affected by this event.

Rayont Inc appoints Mrs. Leilani Latimer as Non-Executive Director to further enhance its Corporate Governance.

Leilani Latimer – Non-Executive Director Leilani Latimer Queensland, Australia, April 22, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Rayont Inc. (“Rayont” or the “Company”) (OTC PINK: RAYT), an international healthcare company specializing in the manufacturing of alternative medicine products and services across the entire value chain, today announces the appointment of Mrs. Leilani Latimer as Non-Executive Director of Rayont Inc. “We are pleased with the appointment of Mrs. Latimer. As the new board director, she brings long experience in growing and scaling businesses in Silicon Valley and globally. Her skills and experience will help the business expansion of Rayont to become a world-class healthcare company.” said Mr. Reyad Fezzani, Chairman of the Board of Directors of Rayont Inc. Leilani Latimer – Non-Executive Director Leilani Latimer is a go-to-market executive and board director with a track record of growing B2B, SaaS, enterprise software companies - public, pre-IPO and start-ups. Ms. Latimer is currently an Independent Director at Black Diamond Group (TSE: BDI) and a Growth Advisor at WellKom International. Her board experience includes participation on Executive, Nominating and Governance committees, and she has held numerous Board Advisory roles with Silicon Valley-based and global start-ups, as well as the Chairmanship of a national non-profit organization. Mrs. Latimer is the Chief Commercial & Marketing Officer at Fair Trade USA, a global certification organization that drives supply chain transparency and resiliency, while driving sustainable development and poverty alleviation through "conscious capitalism". She leads the organization’s commercial transformation efforts and all marketing and commercial functions. Previously, Mrs. Latimer was the Chief Marketing & Commercial Operations Officer at Earlens, a privately held medical technology company. Prior to Earlens, she led Global Marketing, Partnerships & Commercial Operations for Zephyr Health, a cloud-based data and analytics company (SaaS) serving the life sciences industry. Mrs. Latimer’s deep technology experience in B2B SaaS and marketplace technology includes 25 years with Sabre Inc. (NASDAQ:SABR), the world’s largest technology and services provider for the travel industry. Mrs. Latimer holds a BA from UC San Diego, a certificate in Management for International Executives from UC Riverside and a certificate in Sustainable Management from Presidio Graduate School. She resides in San Francisco, is a regular writer and speaker, participates as an active member of the Silicon Valley Italian Community, and holds both US and Italian citizenship. About Rayont Inc. Rayont, Inc. (RAYT) is a public traded company incorporated in Nevada, USA since its inception in 2011. In 2018, the Company repositioned itself to focus on healthcare including the manufacturing of alternative medicine products and services across the entire value chain. Longer term, it has also invested in a groundbreaking cancer treatment technology through an exclusive license arrangement for the Sub-Saharan African territories. Headquartered in Australia with expanding operations internationally, Rayont`s purpose is “Making Natural Products to Improve People`s Health”. We do this by investing in early research and development, establishing high quality manufacturing assets for regional distribution and operating across the alternative medicine value chain. Our underlying strategy is to grow organically, selectively acquire, scale profitable assets and improve efficiency through digitalization. For further information, please visit SAFE HARBOR Certain statements in this news release may contain forward-looking information within the meaning of Rule 175 under the Securities Act of 1933, are subject to Rule 3b-6 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, and are subject to the safe harbors created by those rules. All statements, other than statements of fact, included in this release, including, without limitation, statements regarding potential future plans and objectives of the company, are forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. There can be no assurance that such statements will prove to be accurate and other results and further events could differ materially from those anticipated in such statements. Future events and actual results could differ materially from those set forth in, contemplated by, or underlying the forward-looking statements. Company Contact: Investor Relations [email protected] Attachment Leilani Latimer – Non-Executive Director

Sabre announces upcoming webcasts of its 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders and first quarter 2021 earnings conference call

Sabre Corporation ("Sabre") (NASDAQ: SABR) today announced plans to host a live webcast of its 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders on April 28, 2021 at 10:30 a.m. ET. A live audio webcast of the session will be available on the Investor Relations section of Sabre's website at, and a replay of the event will be available on the website for at least 90 days following the event.

Sabre's (SABR) Revenue Optimizer Solution Picked by JetBlue

JetBlue picks Sabre's (SABR) Revenue Optimizer solution which will help the airline better forecast, analyze and optimize its revenue streams.

The Sabre (NASDAQ:SABR) Share Price Is Up 120% And Shareholders Are Boasting About It

When you buy shares in a company, there is always a risk that the price drops to zero. But if you pick the right.

JetBlue implements Sabre Revenue Optimizer solution to gain real-time visibility into market activity

Sabre Corporation (NASDAQ: SABR), the leading software and technology provider that powers the global travel industry, and JetBlue Airways, a major carrier in the U.S., today announced the airline's successful technology migration to Sabre's Revenue Optimizer solution.

Sabre (SABR) Extends Technology Partnership With Kanoo Travel

Sabre (SABR) will support the recovery of the travel industry in the Middle East with its powerful technology via its extended partnership with Kanoo Travel.

Travel company Sabre says air bookings and hotel reservations rose sequentially in March as COVID vaccines sped up

Travel company Sabre Corp. said Monday it has seen some continued improvement in key volume metrics as the COVID-19 vaccine program gains pace. The company said air bookings, passengers boarded and hotel reservation system transactions for March showed sequential improvement from January and February. Metrics remain sharply lower compared with 2019, the year before the pandemic ground business to a halt. Gross air bookings were down about 70% and net air bookings were down about 68% in March compared with March of 2019, the company said in a regulatory filing. Passengers boarded were down about 54% in the period. "The strongest improvement remains in hotel bookings, with gross hotel central reservation system transactions down approximately 34% in March 2021 versus March 2019," said the filing. Shares were up 0.7% premarket and have gained 27% in the year to date, while the S&P 500 has gained 7%.

Connecting America’s communities

Building Critical Infrastructure and Long-term Industry Partnerships

Sabre Industries’ culture of innovation is the driving force behind our world-class utility and telecom solutions. We are a fully-integrated provider of highly-engineered, mission-critical structures and components to the utility and telecom industries with an acute focus on efficiency, new technologies and sustainability. But, it’s how we do it that sets us apart.

Our work powers the communities we live in and provides crucial electrical and communication infrastructure. To that end, the manufacturing processes we employ at our state-of-the-art facilities allow us to execute world-class solutions for our customers. We deliver these solutions through sustainable methods with recyclable American-made products. This positively impacts our customers, our teammates and communities we serve.


Custom design, advanced engineering and sustainable coating capabilities inspired by our commitment to continuous improvement.

Turn Key Solutions

Manufacturing, engineering and services integration minimizes supply chain risk.


No undertaking too big for our manufacturing and coatings facilities—which are the largest and most advanced in the industry.


Most streamlined tower, pole and enclosure manufacturing processes in the industry, with a focus on continuously-improving enterprise excellence.


A global engineering team with engineers licensed in all 50 states and the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and Guam.


The Sabre (Semi-Automatic Business Research Environment) central reservation system, which was originally a part of American Airlines, pioneered online transactions. For the first time, computers were connected together through a network that allowed people around the world to enter data, process requests for information and conduct business. This system revolutionized the entire travel industry and formed the beginnings of the comprehensive and established system used today to buy and sell travel services. Moreover, it was the precursor for the entire universe of electronic commerce that exploded in the mid-1990s and that we all enjoy today.

Today, Sabre remains the leading provider of travel technology products and services around the world, The Sabre system is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. More than 57,000 travel agencies around the world log into a Sabre desktop each day, and the Sabre system processes more than 42,000 transactions every second.

Sabre got its start because of a chance meeting in 1953. A young IBM salesman, R. Blair Smith, had boarded an American flight from Los Angeles to New York on his way to a training session. He got into a conversation with the man sitting next to him, who turned out to be C.R. Smith, the president of American Airlines. At the time, airline reservations were written by hand on cards and sorted in boxes—an unwieldy mess as the industry expanded. Blair Smith knew that American had an older model computer that could only keep track of the number of seats reserved and open on a flight, but could not record anything about who was in those seats.

As Blair Smith recalled: “I told [C.R. Smith] I was going back to study a computer that had the possibility of doing more than just keeping availability. It could even keep a record of the passenger’s name, the passenger’s itinerary, and, if you like, his phone number. Mr. C.R. Smith was intrigued by this. He took out a card and wrote a special phone number on the back. He said, ‘Now, Blair, … when you get through with your school, our reservation center is at LaGuardia Airport. You go out there and look it over. Then you write me a letter and tell me what we ought to do.’”

At the training session, Blair Smith saw IBM CEO Thomas Watson Jr. and told him about the conversation. Watson told Smith to do exactly as the American president requested: tour the reservation center, write a letter with his recommendations—and send a copy to Watson. Blair Smith recommended a joint development project between IBM and American to create a computerized reservation system, and American Airlines president Smith agreed.

The Sabre reservation system was built in 1960, with lessons learned from IBM’s mid-1950s project to build the gigantic SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) air defense computer system. At first, Sabre just operated in one location, Briarcliff Manor, New York, with two 7090 computers. By the end of 1964, this new system was handling 7500 reservations per hour. The average time to process a reservation in the old manual card system was 90 minutes. Sabre cut it to seconds.

By the mid-1960s, Sabre became the largest private, real-time data processing system, second in size only to the US government’s system. Fortune magazine marveled in a 1964 article at what Sabre could do. “To the would-be passenger in Los Angeles who phones or drops by the American Airlines ticket counter for a reservation, very little seems to have changed,” Fortune wrote. “Yet in the two and one-half seconds between the last word of his request for space and the first word of the agent’s reply he has been the beneficiary of a [US]$30 million computer installation that not only has booked him on the correct flight as far as a year ahead but, once it gets his name, will keep track of his every move along the line—including ordering his meals, his rental cars, or his connecting reservations—until he arrives where he wants to go.”

Sabre became a huge competitive advantage for American, forcing every other airline to build its own reservation system. Most of them turned to IBM.

In 1976, American extended Sabre to travel agents so the agents could book reservations directly. The system was now so advanced it could store one million airfares. In 1985, American created easySabre to give consumers online access over the Internet and through services like CompuServe. A year later, Sabre broke new ground once again, launching the industry’s first revenue management system, helping airlines maximize the airfare at which each seat is sold. The revenue management practices created by Sabre continue to be used today. And a decade after that, in 1996, Sabre launched the website Travelocity. In 2000, Sabre separated from American Airlines to form its own company, the Sabre Holdings Corporation.

At each point along the way, Sabre gave people their first experiences with the way computers could instantly handle transactions and keep track of inventory, prices and customers—the basis for an entire universe of electronic commerce that exploded in the mid-1990s.


The F-100A Super Sabre entered service on September 17, 1954, and continued to be plagued by the issues that arose during development. After suffering six major accidents in its first two months of operation, the type was grounded until February 1955. Problems with the F-100A persisted and the USAF phased out the variant in 1958.

In response to TAC's desire for a fighter-bomber version of the Super Sabre, North American developed the F-100C which incorporated an improved J57-P-21 engine, mid-air refueling capability, as well as a variety of hardpoints on the wings. Though early models suffered from many of the F-100A's performance issues, these were later reduced through the addition of yaw and pitch dampers.

Continuing to evolve the type, North American brought forward the definitive F-100D in 1956. A ground attack aircraft with fighter capability, the F-100D saw the inclusion of improved avionics, an autopilot, and the ability to utilize the majority of the USAF's non-nuclear weapons. To further improve the aircraft's flight characteristics, the wings were lengthened by 26 inches and the tail area enlarged.

While an improvement over the preceding variants, the F-100D suffered from a variety of niggling problems which were often resolved with non-standardized, post-production fixes. As a result, programs such as 1965's High Wire modifications were required to standardize capabilities across the F-100D fleet.

Parallel to the development of combat variants of the F-100 was the alteration of six Super Sabres into RF-100 photo reconnaissance aircraft. Dubbed "Project Slick Chick," these aircraft had their armaments removed and replaced with photographic equipment. Deployed to Europe, they conducted overflights of Eastern Bloc countries between 1955 and 1956. The RF-100A was soon replaced in this role by the new Lockheed U-2 which could more safely conduct deep penetration reconnaissance missions. Additionally, a two-seat F-100F variant was developed to serve as a trainer.

The main weakness of the Sabre is it's mediocre range and that it takes 4 hits to knock out. Keeping your distance with a longer weapon is a good choice. Weapons that can kill in three or less hits are effective since they don't need to go near the enemy that often.

It is also weak to the left as it does not swing in that direction and has minimal overhead coverage, making it easy to evade.

Sabre Dance History

When you’re preflighting an airplane that has just rolled out of the factory, you expect it to be perfect. But every pilot knows that perfection is elusive in aviation, and simple mistakes can snowball into disastrous mishaps within seconds. First Lieutenant Barty R. Brooks found that out the hard way on January 10, 1956.

That afternoon Brooks and two other U.S. Air Force pilots reported to North American Aviation Corporation’s Palmdale, Calif., factory and signed acceptance papers for three shiny new F-100C Super Sabres. The three men, members of the 1708th Ferrying Wing, Detachment 12, based at Kelly Air Force Base in Texas, would be flying the “Huns” to their new duty station at George Air Force Base, barely a 10-minute hop to the southeast, at Victorville. For the ferry pilots, who routinely trained to deliver new planes across oceans, the day’s assignment must have seemed like a walk in the park.

Brooks walked around the jet, checking for the usual signs of trouble: leaking fluids, unlatched fasteners, underinflated tires and the like. Since he was new to the F-100, like most pilots in 1956, he may not have known that when ground crews towed the plane they disconnected the torque link from the nose gear scissors by removing the pivot pin, which had to be reinserted and secured before flight. Brooks didn’t notice the pin wasn’t secure. Completing his inspection, he mounted up with the others.

Brooks walked around the jet, checking for the usual signs of trouble: leaking fluids, unlatched fasteners, underinflated tires and the like. Since he was new to the F-100, like most pilots in 1956, he may not have known that when ground crews towed the plane they disconnected the torque link from the nose gear scissors by removing the pivot pin, which had to be reinserted and secured before flight. Brooks didn’t notice the pin wasn’t secure. Completing his inspection, he mounted up with the others.
All three pilots started their engines, and the leader, Captain Rusty Wilson, checked the flight in on the radio. The third pilot in the group was Lieutenant Crawford Shockley. They took off at 1512 hours, undoubtedly expecting to make happy hour at the George officer’s club.

The Making of a Jet Pilot

Brooks was born into a farming family in Martha, Okla., in 1929. His family later moved to Lewisville, Texas, northwest of Dallas. Bart studied at Texas A&M, where he joined the Cadet Corps. At 6-feet-3, Brooks towered over most lowerclassmen, to whom he became known as “Black Bart.”

By the time Brooks graduated in 1952 with an agriculture degree, flying had captured his fancy. After collecting his ROTC commission, he headed to Columbus, Miss., for basic flight training. John Wilson, Bart’s friend and classmate at Columbus, reflected that because of his training at Texas A&M, Bart was a model officer: “He wore the uniform well. He was well liked and represented the Air Force as well as any officer. He was just a super person.”

Brooks went on to Laredo, Texas, for jet training, then reported to the 311th Fighter-Bomber Wing in Korea, where he flew Republic F-84s and North American F-86s. Although he arrived in Korea too late to see combat, Brooks gained a profound sympathy for the Korean people in the aftermath of the fighting. He joined an organization that cared for Korean orphans, supporting a girl and three boys.

After Korea, Brooks was assigned to the 1708th as a ferry pilot. The idea was to get the planes from factories to bases without interrupting the training routines of operational units, just as the WASPs had during World War II. Former ferry pilot Joe Hillner recalled that Bart Brooks was one of about 100 pilots in the outfit. “We were required to maintain currency in at least two jet fighters,” he said, “and as many [propeller] planes (such as the F-51, L-20, T-6, B-25, B-26, etc.) as we wanted.”

Brooks went to Nellis Air Force Base in Nevada for his F-100 checkout. The ferry pilots were given a short course because they had been previously qualified as mission-ready in older fighters. So when Brooks took off from Palmdale that fateful day in January 1956, he had only logged a bit more than 40 hours in the Super Sabre.

Brooks had already had one brief brush with fame. While he was still in gunnery school at Luke Air Force Base in Arizona, he was one of three trainees featured in an article in The New York Times Magazine’s May 2, 1954, issue, “The Making of a Jet Pilot.” Describing Brooks as “very tall and blond,” author C.B. Palmer added: “His height and spareness give an impression of awkwardness. His physical movements are slow but they cover the ground. He is rough-cut in appearance, very open and simple in his responses to questions.” Following the trainees through a day of briefings, gunnery practice, academics and time off, Palmer described them all as “acceptable men and the only concern here is to make them the best possible.”

Emergency Diversion to Edwards

The flight of three Super Sabres roared over George Air Force Base late that afternoon, sequentially breaking to the downwind leg. Then all three slowed and lowered their gear—and that’s when the trouble started.

One of Brooks’ flight mates noticed that his F-100’s nose wheel scissors was disconnected. The unsecured pivot pin had worked loose and fallen out, causing the scissors assembly to fall open and allowing the nose wheel to swivel at random. Fearing his aircraft might swerve off the runway on touchdown, Brooks powered up and went around. He decided to divert to nearby Edwards Air Force Base, home to the USAF Flight Test Center.

Fighter pilots never allow one of their own to fly alone if he is in trouble. Wilson escorted Brooks to Edwards, whose 15,000-foot runway provided a wide safety margin and whose fire and rescue crews were accustomed to emergencies. Brooks’ decision to go to Edwards set the stage for arguably the most famous film footage in aviation history.

Edwards was then in its heyday. Its cadre of test pilots frequently vied to best each other, routinely breaking speed and altitude records, while engineers worked to analyze the data gathered from their efforts. As the afternoon of January 10 was winding down, the base’s film crew was gearing up for yet another test, with camera operators readying their equipment. Suddenly firefighting equipment roared toward the runway, and the cameramen spotted an F-100 coming around the final turn on approach. The crews switched on their equipment and swung their viewfinders toward the incoming jet.

Behind the Power Curve

Brooks’ experience in Korean War–era jets hadn’t fully prepared him for the new generation of fighters, particularly the dicey F-100. The Hun was the result of North American Aviation’s quest to improve on its success with the F-86 Sabre, which established a 10-to-1 kill ratio in Korea. First produced in 1953, the F-100 was bigger than the F-86 and capable of supersonic flight, with a meatier engine, more wing sweep (45 degrees versus 35 degrees in the F-86) and a new device that generated powerful pulses of thrust at the touch of the pilot’s throttle hand—an afterburner.

Early models, the A and C (there was no B), had no trailing edge flaps, which meant their approach speeds were much higher than with previous jets. Hun pilots had to think faster and farther ahead. And because of its highly swept wings, the new fighter had vicious stalling characteristics. At low speeds, the tips stalled first, with the stall progressing inboard. This not only rendered the ailerons less effective but also shifted the center of lift forward of the center of gravity, resulting in a tendency to pitch up—which in turn aggravated the stall.

The Hun had other insidious tendencies. As Curtis Burns, one of Brooks’ friends, pointed out, “The F-100C had…a dangerous tendency to [develop] adverse yaw and roll-coupling at a high angle of attack.” These are complex aerodynamic and inertia forces that interact with each other. A roll at slow speed and a high angle of attack can produce unwanted pitch or yaw. The F-100 was notorious for this. Jack Doub, a veteran of the legendary Misty F-100 squadron in Vietnam, put it succinctly: “Most of us quickly learned to deal with low-and-slow issues—we avoided them!”

But Barty Brooks had not yet learned the F-100’s quirky ways. At 1627 hours Pacific time he rounded the final turn and saw that his descent rate would put him on Edwards’ runway prior to reaching the area the fire trucks had covered with foam. He raised his nose to stretch his approach toward the foam, but he was late adding more power.

His airspeed fell. His wingtips began to stall. The wings rocked. Adverse yaw coupled in, and the nose swayed left and right as Brooks applied aileron pressure to stop the rolling motion. As his airspeed dropped, the oscillations worsened and the nose pitched higher because the center of lift was moving forward. Realizing he was seriously behind the power curve—the “region of reverse command,” where more power is required to sustain flight at lower airspeeds—Brooks lit his afterburner.

The Dance

Footage from the base’s cameras clearly shows a blue plume blasting dirt from the runway and adjacent desert. The raw power of the F-100C’s afterburner blast, coupled with the pitch-up of the creeping stall, raised the Hun’s nose even higher, until it was nearly vertical.

Brooks, however, was by that time too low and slow to be able to safely eject. Unlike modern “zero-zero” ejection seats, the seats of his era had to be used at a minimum airspeed and altitude in order for an ejection to be survivable.

The film shows that Brooks twice lowered the nose to lessen his angle of attack and try to fly out of the impending stall. But each time the nose pitched up again, and each time the burner blasted a fresh spray of dirt from the ground. Moving in a slow, eerie fashion, the Hun waltzed down the runway, then over its perimeter, snout jutting skyward, swaying almost gracefully from side to side. The nearby rescue vehicles gunned their engines to get out of the jet’s path.

As Brooks struggled with the pitch oscillations, the Hun rolled right, then hesitated and rolled steeper to the right. His heading swerved 90 degrees from the runway. The bank angle steepened to close to 90 degrees, and the fighter fell into the ground on its right wingtip. An enormous explosion erupted, spewing out a ball of upward-boiling, pitch-black smoke laced with ribbons of flame. Debris rose, fell and tumbled in all directions. The fire and rescue teams arrived within mere seconds, quickly reducing the inferno to a few isolated fires. They reached Brooks in less than two minutes, but found him dead, still strapped in his seat, which had torn loose from its mounts and rolled free of the wreckage.

Stories have long circulated that Brooks survived the crash only to die of asphyxiation, having suffocated from his own vomit. Not true. His helmet and oxygen mask were not on his head when rescuers found him. Both were found in the wreckage.

The investigating officer concluded that Brooks had been at fault: He had failed to adhere to the landing techniques outlined in the pilot’s flight handbook. Contributing factors were the loose pivot pin and the fact that Brooks had been distracted by “too much emphasis on trying to hit the foam.”

Brooks’ friends and others close to the accident agreed that if he had continued his rate of descent and landed short of the foam, instead of trying to stretch his approach, the outcome would have been far different. In later discussions, several pilots who talked with North American engineers indicated that Brooks’ nose wheel would likely have aligned itself on touchdown.

The film of the accident was soon circulated among Air Force and Navy units for safety training purposes. Bart’s fatal ride was quickly tagged the “Sabre dance.”

Encore Performances

There were many other accounts of similar incidents. Pilot Sam McIntyre, for example, wrote: “In 1961 at Nellis AFB I saw an F-100D do the Sabre Dance. On the take off [his] nose pitched straight up and that’s when the dance began….the right wing dropped and touched the ground, the nose dropped just enough for the pilot to gain some control. He flew it out of the stall, just a few feet above our heads and over the tails of other F-100s….” The pilot who survived that episode flew on to the gunnery range, apparently undaunted, but the incident so unnerved McIntyre’s flight that the men aborted their mission.

Curtis Burns, a classmate of Bart’s at A&M, had a hard time watching the film, but he realized that there were valuable lessons to be learned from it. “Our squadron was shown film clips of his crash and it was obvious…what mistakes he made,” Burns said. “I have seen several pilots die in fiery crashes when they made mistakes in handling the F-100.”

Ron Green was one of the pilots who learned from Brooks’ mistakes. “Prior to our first solo flight in a ‘C’ model,” he said, “we watched the film of the Sabre Dance….After watching this I said to myself, if [Brooks] had only applied full [power] and full opposite rudder, and slammed the stick forward when the nose rose and it started to roll, he would have survived.” The next day Green mounted up for his initial solo. Approaching to land, he recalled, “Everything was going good….Then at round-out I must [have]…pulled back on the stick [too much].” The Super Sabre’s nose jumped up so high that Green couldn’t see out front. He applied full power, kicked full rudder opposite the roll and pushed the stick forward. The jet rolled upright and the nose went down. He hit the runway in a three-point attitude, bounced back into the air and slowly accelerated. “It [the Brooks film] saved my life!” he said.

Medley Gatewood got a colossal scare when he was a new instructor, flying in the back seat of a tandem cockpit F-100F, with a student in front. While trying to land, the student raised the nose too high, and the right wing dropped. The student countered with left aileron but didn’t apply rudder. The nose yawed violently right. “At that point,” Gatewood said, “time and motion seemed suspended, and…the famous Sabre dance film flickered through my thoughts.”

Gatewood took over, applied left rudder, lowered the nose and went to military power (maximum power without afterburner). Remembering how Brooks’ use of the afterburner seemed to aggravate the nose-high attitude, he stopped short of engaging it. The Hun bounced out of a three-point landing and slowly climbed out. Gatewood was “shaking like a quaking Aspen tree” when a wingman joined up and informed him that the fairings on both his wingtips were bent upward from hitting the ground. As they came back around the pattern, the student asked to resume control before the landing, but Gatewood refused, using a few very choice words.

Incredibly, at least one pilot intentionally waltzed with the Super Sabre—in front of thousands of awed spectators. In an online forum, Bill Turner recalled a memorable airshow he saw in North Carolina in the late 1950s: “Bob Hoover did a ‘Sabre Dance’ with an F-100. I have never seen anything like it. It seemed to stop in space in front of us and twist and turn like a bird catching a bug. Great plane, greater pilot.” Few would argue with him.

As the years passed, the story of Brooks’ last ride was told countless times in bars and hangars. Inevitably it was also mentioned in a verse of the renowned fighter pilot song “Give Me Operations”:

Don’t give me a One-Double-Oh
To fight against friendly or foe
That old Sabre Dance made me
crap in my pants
Don’t give me a One-Double-Oh

The film of Brooks’ accident undoubtedly saved lives after he died. Generations of fledgling Air Force and Navy pilots—the author included—were shown the legendary film footage in ground school, watching aghast as Bart waltzed toward his death.

In a very different context, many more people would also get to see the Sabre dance: tens of thousands of moviegoers and TV watchers. The dramatic crash footage was incorporated into a handful of major films and television series (see sidebar, above).

Separating the Man From the Legend

Looking back now, it might seem insensitive to use footage of a military man’s death in such a manner. Air Force officials never told Brooks’ parents, both now deceased, about the film. In fact his niece, Kaelan Anderson, only recently learned of the film’s existence when I asked her about it. She said: “I do not want to view these movies [and] I object that they used the film to make money. I will always cherish the memories of my Uncle Bart. He was a special man, and he was loved by all his family and friends.”

Former Super Sabre pilot John Wilson agreed, saying, “I have big problems when I have seen it in the commercial movies.” Wilson, who was supposed to be piloting the plane that Brooks flew that day, explained: “I had planned to go back to New York for the Christmas holidays. When Bart heard that my leave had been canceled and that I had been assigned to fly that mission, he stepped up and said, ‘I’ve been home recently. You go on leave and I’ll take the flight for you.’ So as you can see I’m somewhat emotional about the accident….I loved the guy. He did me a big favor, and it killed him.”

Lieutenant Barty R. Brooks lies in Round Grove Cemetery in Lewisville, Texas. But his legendary Sabre dance will live on, as long as there are pilots left who remember the film of his tragic accident. Anytime they watch it, or replay those ghastly images in their memory, they’ll be silently admonishing Bart to lower his nose and push that damned rudder.

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