Trinity

Trinity


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The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from the Latin trinus, meaning "threefold") professes that there is one God, but three eternal and consubstantial persons (aspects): the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. The Father is the God of Israel (the creator God of Genesis), the Son is the historical Jesus of Nazareth, and the Holy Spirit is the presence or spirit of God that binds them together. The word 'trinity' appears nowhere in the Bible; the concept was finalized at the First Council of Nicaea in 325 CE after years of debate. It was an attempt to articulate Christianity’s belief in the oneness of God with their claims about Jesus and their experiences of the spirit.

Jewish Monotheism & Jesus as Divine Being

Our modern concept of monotheism is defined as the belief in one God, but the ancients did not articulate their views as belief, what they did, their ritual acts were more important. Jews acknowledged the existence of other powers - the Jewish 'heaven' was populated with gradients of divinity; archangels, angels, cherubim, and seraphim - but they were commanded only to worship one. Worship in the ancient world consisted of sacrifices.

The Christian innovation was to claim that the suffering servant was God himself, who humbled himself in the manifestation of the physical, earthly Jesus of Nazareth.

We do not know exactly what happened when the disciples experienced the resurrection of Jesus; no one wrote anything down. However, most scholars agree that they experienced something—either physical or spiritual, or perhaps a vision. The gospels claimed that Jesus "ascended into heaven" and Saint Stephen envisioned Jesus "standing at the right hand of God" in his vision before he died (Acts 7:55). In the 1st century CE, there were many stories that the patriarchs of Israel and the Maccabee martyrs were in heaven, in a concept known as the "vindication of the righteous." This may have been the initial understanding of Jesus as (now) among those in heaven.

The Letters of Paul

Paul, a Jewish Pharisee writing in the 50s-60s CE, also had a vision of Jesus in heaven. A voice told him to be the apostle to the Gentiles (non-Jews), and he created communities of believers throughout the Eastern Roman Empire. But as Paul had said, the suffering and death on a cross of God’s messiah was "a stumbling block to Jews and foolishness to Gentiles" (1 Corinthians 1:23). An unknown early Christian turned to the "suffering servant" passages of Isaiah 53-54 to rationalize what happened. Isaiah posited a suffering servant who was faithful to God but suffered, was tortured and killed. God raised him from the dead and placed him beside him on his throne. In the context of Isaiah, the suffering servant was the nation of Israel. Early Christians claimed that this was a prophecy for Jesus of Nazareth, now commonly referred to as Christ (Greek Christos for the Hebrew term “messiah”). An early hymn recited by Paul is found in Philippians 2:6-11, using many of the phrases from Isaiah:

[Jesus] Who, being in very nature God, did not consider equality with God something to be used to his own advantage; rather, he made himself nothing by taking the very nature of a servant, being made in human likeness. And being found in appearance as a man, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to death—even death on a cross! Therefore God exalted him to the highest place and gave him the name that is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue acknowledge that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.

Christ, "being in the very nature God" produced the concept that Christ pre-existed and was present at creation. But at the same time, Paul also said, "But when the set time had fully come, God sent his Son, born of a woman, born under the law [of Moses]" (Galatians 4:4). Jews conceived of God as selfless, manifesting himself in history for the salvation of Israel. In the books of the Prophets, in the final days, God would reveal himself to all the nations. The Christian innovation here was to claim that the suffering servant was God himself, who humbled himself in the manifestation of the physical, earthly Jesus of Nazareth.

The line "every knee should bow" reflects the age-old bowing down before images of the gods. Paul said that all should worship Jesus, and as far as we know, this meant hymns and prayers to Jesus, petitions to Jesus, baptizing in his name, healing and exorcisms in his name, and his presence invoked in eucharistic meals (1 Cor. 1:2; 2 Cor. 12:8-9; 1 Cor. 16:22; Romans 10:9-13; 1 Cor. 6:11; Roman 6:3; I Cor. 11:17-34).

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The Divine Jesus & the Role of the Spirit

Over time, the spirit was literally claimed to be present in what became Christian sacraments.

After Jesus walked on water, "Then those who were in the boat worshipped him, saying, 'Truly you are the son of God'" (Matthew 14:33). Those who encountered the resurrected Jesus "worshipped him" (Matthew 28:17; Luke 24:52). When Jesus appeared to the disciples in the Galilee, Jesus said, "Therefore, go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit" (Matthew 28:19.) This is not yet the concept of the Trinity, but it reflects the early, formalized ritual of baptism.

The "spirit," "the holy spirit," and the "spirit of God" appear 275 times in the New Testament, but this is not yet a separate entity from God. In Judaism, the "spirit of God" is equivalent to the "breath of God" that animated Adam, that possessed the Prophets, and the presence of God in the Temple. In this vein, when the dove descended on Jesus at his baptism, it symbolized God’s presence, acknowledging Jesus as his son. In Acts 2, the disciples receive the holy spirit at the feast of Pentecost, Peter then said, "Repent and be baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the holy spirit" (38). In Paul’s letters, being possessed by the holy spirit enabled believers to "speak in tongues," prophesize, teach, and heal. Over time, the spirit was literally claimed to be present in what became Christian sacraments.

Christianity in the 2nd Century CE

The Roman Empire began persecuting Christians for their refusal to participate in the state and imperial cults during the reign of Domitian (r. 83-94 CE). Not only were Christians guilty of atheism (disbelief in the gods) but conservative Rome also had a long-held prejudice against new religions. The Jews had been exempted from the state cults from the time of Julius Caesar (100-44 BCE), but Christians were not Jews, nor were they members of traditional native cults. The Church Fathers petitioned Roman emperors to exempt Christians from the state cults, but to outsiders, Christianity was not monotheism, Christians worshipped two gods.

Through the literary device of allegory, Justin Martyr (100 - c. 160 CE) claimed that each time God appeared in the stories, this was in fact a form of the pre-existent Christ. Therefore, Christians retained the oneness of God who emanated his word (the logos) in Christ. Christianity was not new; their beliefs were based on the ancient traditions of the Jews.

Tertullian (155-200 CE) was the first to use the Latin term 'trinity'. He described it as a "divine economy" as in the household or monarchy of God. God the Father laid out the divine plan, God the Son carried out the will of the Father, and God the Spirit motivated the will of God in believers (Adversus Praxean, 27). In the Western Roman Empire, churches had been using what was called The Old Roman Creed, or The Apostles’ Creed by the 4th century CE. It included trinitarian beliefs, but without the philosophical concepts that became part of Nicaea.

The Arian Controversy & The First Council of Nicaea

In 312 CE, Roman emperor Constantine I (r. 306-337 CE) converted to Christianity and simultaneously became head of the Christian Church. He promoted the unity of belief throughout the empire. The concept of the Trinity could have remained an intellectual endeavor only, but a controversy emerged in the city of Alexandria that spilled over into other cities (318-321 CE). Arius, a presbyter in Alexandria taught that if one believed that God created everything, then at one time, he must have created Christ. Indeed, the very terms the Father and the Son indicated that Christ was subordinate to God. The bishop of Alexandria excommunicated Arius, but other church leaders took his side. Riots broke out among the various factions in different cities.

In 325 CE, Constantine called for an empire-wide council to resolve the matter. The challenge was to articulate the way in which the oneness of God was also found in his transcendence (through the power of the Spirit) and his incarnate nature (taking on flesh in the Son). The meeting was held in Nicaea, near the new capital of Constantinople that was still in progress. Roughly 217 bishops attended along with their entourages. Constantine paid everyone’s travel expenses and room and board. In the discussions at the Council of Nicaea, various views were debated:

  • Monarchianism - God as king who delegated his powers to the Son and Holy Spirit
  • Subordinationism or Arianism - the Son was a creature, and subordinate to the Father
  • Sabellianism - a perfect union between the Father and Son, and thus the Father was crucified in the Son. This concept was eventually declared heretical.

The debates on the Trinity were quite esoteric and included philosophical ideas of the universe. Was Christ homo-ousios, a being like the Father, or was he homoi-ousios, of the identical essence of the Father? Note that the difference is in an iota, a subtle difference in the Greek. The Council opted for the second choice in that God and Christ were identical in essence and that Christ was a manifestation of God himself on earth. Beyond the esoteric theology, however, the practical implication for the choice of Christ being identical to the essence of God was that it theoretically kept the monotheism of traditional Judaism intact. Having Christ identical to God, confirmed the view that Christ was pre-existent and helped to create the universe.

The choice bolstered the status of the Christian emperor. Over time, the imminent kingdom of God had faded. The kingdom was still to come but in the interim, the Christian emperor was to stand in for Christ on earth. The emperor should therefore have the identical power of God on earth as he rules. It is after the Council of Nicaea that Christian emperors started to be portrayed with a halo and the trappings of divine worship.

The Nicene Creed

The concept of a creed (from the Latin credo, "I believe") was a Christian innovation. With multiple native cults, there was no central authority that dictated what all should believe. The Nicene Creed formalized one system of belief that was promoted through the power of the emperor (and his legions). As such, any dissent from the Creed was now treason. Below is the English translation of the Nicene Creed:

We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of all things visible and invisible:— and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of the Father, that is of the substance of the Father; God of God and Light of light; true God of true God; begotten, not made, consubstantial with the Father: by whom all things were made, both which are in heaven and on earth: who for the sake of us men, and on account of our salvation, descended, became incarnate, and was made man; suffered, arose again the third day, and ascended into the heavens, and will come again to judge the living and the dead. [We] also [believe] in the Holy Spirit. But the holy Catholic and Apostolic church anathematizes those who say There was a time when he was not, and He was not before he was begotten and He was made from that which did not exist, and those who assert that he is of other substance or essence than the Father, or that he was created, or is susceptible of change. (Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica, Book VIII, quoted in Schaff, Volume 1)

With the emperor chairing the Council, most of the bishops agreed to the Creed, but two refused: Eusebius, Constantine’s court bishop, and of course, Arius who had been brought in chains from Alexandria. Both were sent into exile. However, after some of the bishops returned home, they contested it, which is why further Councils had to be called to achieve conformity. Those who sided with Arius, made their way east and north of the Black Sea area (the Balkans and Russia), converting people. These Arians were quite successful. Two priests, Cyril and Methodius, created an alphabet, Cyrillic, which is still used in Eastern and Russian Orthodox Churches. Many of the later invaders of the Roman Empire (Goths, Visigoths, Vandals, Huns) were Arian Christians.

Later in life, Constantine apparently had a change of heart; he recalled both Bishop Eusebius and Arius from exile and brought them to Constantinople. He chose Bishop Eusebius to baptize him on his deathbed. Arius died not long after he returned under mysterious circumstances. His followers claimed that he was poisoned, but his enemies considered this divine intervention. When Constantine died, the Empire was allotted to his sons in three parts which often led to conspiracies and civil war. With the ascension of Constantius II (r. 337-361 CE), the empire was ruled by an Arian Christian for a while.

The First Council of Constantinople

The First Council of Constantinople of 381 CE was called by Emperor Theodosius I (r. 379-395 CE) to unify the Eastern and Western Churches after Constantinople had elected an Arian bishop. At the same time, it was recognized that the Council of Nicaea did not clarify the role of the holy spirit. The Council of Constantinople condemned all forms of Arianism and added more details to the Nicene Creed:

[Speaking of Jesus]. and was incarnate by the Holy Spirit and of the Virgin Mary and was made man; he was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, and suffered and was buried, and the third day he rose again, according to the scriptures, and ascended into heaven, and sits at the right hand of the Father. (quoted in Schaff, Volume 14)

These extra details were added in response to continuing Gnostic Christian views that Jesus did not become human but only appeared so. The function of the Spirit was now made explicit, too:

And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and giver of life, who proceeds from the Father, who with the Father and the Son is worshipped and glorified, who spoke through the Prophets. (quoted in Schaff, Volume 14)

Finally, since some Christians had wanted a second baptism to remove their sins after the first one, a line was added at the end:

We acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins; we look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. (quoted in Schaff, Volume 14)

The Filioque Controversy & the Modern Concept

In the 6th century, some churches added a clause to the description of the Holy Spirit: "The Lord and giver of life who proceeds from the Father, and through the Son" (Latin: filioque). Several of the Eastern churches claimed that this diminished the power of the Spirit. Ultimately, the debate over this clause (and other matters) brought about the separation of the Eastern Orthodox churches from the Western Latin churches in 1054.

Modern Christianity summarizes the concept of the Trinity as follows:

  • The three aspects within the one eternal God are God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit.
  • God the Father is the eternal and uncreated source of power.
  • God the Son (Word or Logos) is the eternal tendency of God to express himself, to create, and to manifest himself on earth.
  • God the Spirit connects the Father to the Son and is manifest in the Church and the lives of believers.

The name derives from Trinity House in Leith, which formerly held these lands and had a large estate farm, Trinity Mains, in the area. The coat of arms from the farm is preserved on the gable of a modern block on Newhaven Main Street.

Although having some buildings from the 18th century, the area was largely developed in the early 19th century, as a mansion house district, broadly comparable in style to The Grange area of Edinburgh (Trinity is sometimes referred to as Leith's Grange). Many buildings were "second homes" to rich families in the New Town and were treated as a "country retreat".

The style of housing is now very mixed, as the area has always been seen as desirable, and developers have accordingly been keen to build, usually in the preferred architectural style of their period. Victoria Park adds to the area's amenities as do a large number of cycle paths and walkways derived from the city's disused northern suburban railway lines. East Trinity Road is typical in having property types ranging from original mansions, Victorian terraces and tenements, cottages to modern developments. Craighall Crescent has a Victorian crescent on one side of the street with much later houses on the other side.

The remnant northeast wing of the 15th century Wardie Castle (later Wardie House) survives on Wardie House Lane. This was rebuilt in 1780 by Sir Alexander Boswall who gives his name to Boswall Road.

Numbers 17 to 23 Boswall Road were built in 1815. The westmost wing (containing a telescope viewing area to the harbour) was his own house. The central and east blocks were built as the Pollock Missionary School. The doorpiece on number 21 seems a later addition to embellish this otherwise plain block.

The most notable building on Boswall Road was Wardie Lodge, later renamed Challenger Lodge by Sir John Murray in 1914, after his Challenger Expedition investigating abyssal lifeforms in the deep oceans. After use as a children's home, it was converted to St Columba's Hospice, providing care for the terminally ill, in 1977. [1] Although still extant, the original lodge is now subsumed by modern buildings for the hospice.

11 Boswall Road, East Cottage, dates from the 17th century and was a part-time summer home for Professor John Wilson pen-named "Christopher North".

From 1821 to 1898 the Trinity Chain Pier was used by ferries and latterly swimmers. The booking office survives as a pub. Trinity railway station still survives, up a lane opposite, but is converted to residential use.

Wardie Parish Church is one of several Church of Scotland churches in Trinity.

Trinity Academy is one of the historic schools of the city but has large modern extensions on its east side.

Trinity Cottage (the home of Christian Salvesen) was demolished in 1969) [2] and replaced by National Health Service (NHS) offices. It in turn was demolished in 2008 and replaced by modern townhouses. Only the enclosing wall and small south lodge exist from the original structure. [3]


Trinity

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Trinity, in Christian doctrine, the unity of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit as three persons in one Godhead. The doctrine of the Trinity is considered to be one of the central Christian affirmations about God. It is rooted in the fact that God came to meet Christians in a threefold figure: (1) as Creator, Lord of the history of salvation, Father, and Judge, as revealed in the Old Testament (2) as the Lord who, in the incarnated figure of Jesus Christ, lived among human beings and was present in their midst as the “Resurrected One” and (3) as the Holy Spirit, whom they experienced as the helper or intercessor in the power of the new life.

Neither the word “Trinity” nor the explicit doctrine appears in the New Testament, nor did Jesus and his followers intend to contradict the Shema in the Hebrew Scriptures: “Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord” (Deuteronomy 6:4). The earliest Christians, however, had to cope with the implications of the coming of Jesus Christ and of the presumed presence and power of God among them—i.e., the Holy Spirit, whose coming was connected with the celebration of Pentecost. The Father, Son, and Holy Spirit were associated in such New Testament passages as the Great Commission: “Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit” (Matthew 28:19) and in the apostolic benediction: “The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Spirit be with you all” (2 Corinthians 13:13). Thus, the New Testament established the basis for the doctrine of the Trinity.

The doctrine developed gradually over several centuries and through many controversies. Initially, both the requirements of monotheism inherited from the Hebrew Scriptures and the implications of the need to interpret the biblical teaching to Greco-Roman religions seemed to demand that the divine in Christ as the Word, or Logos, be interpreted as subordinate to the Supreme Being. An alternative solution was to interpret Father, Son, and Holy Spirit as three modes of the self-disclosure of the one God but not as distinct within the being of God itself. The first tendency recognized the distinctness among the three, but at the cost of their equality and hence of their unity (subordinationism). The second came to terms with their unity, but at the cost of their distinctness as “persons” (modalism). The high point of these conflicts was the so-called Arian controversy in the early 4th century. In his interpretation of the idea of God, Arius sought to maintain a formal understanding of the oneness of God. In defense of that oneness, he was obliged to dispute the sameness of essence of the Son and the Holy Spirit with God the Father. It was not until later in the 4th century that the distinctness of the three and their unity were brought together in a single orthodox doctrine of one essence and three persons.

The Council of Nicaea in 325 stated the crucial formula for that doctrine in its confession that the Son is “of the same substance [homoousios] as the Father,” even though it said very little about the Holy Spirit. Over the next half century, St. Athanasius defended and refined the Nicene formula, and, by the end of the 4th century, under the leadership of St. Basil of Caesarea, St. Gregory of Nyssa, and St. Gregory of Nazianzus (the Cappadocian Fathers), the doctrine of the Trinity took substantially the form it has maintained ever since. It is accepted in all of the historic confessions of Christianity, even though the impact of the Enlightenment decreased its importance in some traditions.


The Chinese Contribution

In Weaverville, the Weaverville Joss House is a vivid reminder of the Chinese contribution to this part of California. Above the front door Chinese characters in luminous gold translate to read, “The Temple of the Forest Beneath the Clouds.” The Weaverville Joss House is the oldest continuously used Chinese temple in California.

The Chinese Come to California In 1848 news of the gold discovery in California stirred China as it did the rest of the world. For some time southern China had been experiencing economic hardships, and emigration to the California gold fields seemed a solution. Thousands came, hoping to find gold and return to China as men of wealth. Chinese immigrants, mostly from the province of Guangdong, established claims in Trinity County.

Despite the high $4 monthly tax on foreign miners, the hardworking Chinese were able to send their earnings back to their families in China. Unfortunately, not all Chinese miners flourished in the gold fields.

This remote, unforgiving environment brought many others to early, often unmarked, graves.

Many Chinese immigrants did not go to the gold fields. Some became entrepreneurs, opening grocery stores, doctors’ offices, barbershops, bakeries and restaurants in Weaverville.

Before long, Weaverville had an opera house and a puppet theater to accommodate traveling troupes of Chinese entertainers.

Because of their history of clan associations, the Chinese banded together in groups according to the area in China they had come from. In Weaverville, four separate companies — the Yong-Wa, Se-Yep, Neng-ong and Sam-Yep — were formed. In June 1854 one group was accused of cheating the others in the Weaverville Chinese gambling hall. Animosity grew until a battle was called to settle the dispute. Carrying weapons crafted by local blacksmiths, the two groups met on the battlefield. The great Chinese War of 1854 saw the smaller group defeat the larger one, with eight men dead and another 20 wounded.

About 1853, the Chinese residents of Weaverville erected a small Taoist joss house that they named Won Lim Miao (Won Lim Temple). Taoism, which subscribes to the teachings of Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu from around the third century B.C., aims at serenity through harmony with nature. Each individual is expected to eliminate ambition and attain purity and simplicity. This belief is also influenced by Buddhism, Confucianism, and the veneration of Chinese heroes and sages.

The first temple building, with most of its furnishings, was consumed by fire in 1861. Local Chinese residents then contributed generously to build a new temple. However, in 1873 a fire swept through Weaverville, completely destroying the second temple. In February 1874 the residents began construction of the present building in the Chinese section of Weaverville, but by 1880 the Chinese population in Trinity County had dwindled to fewer than 2,000 people. Gold had become harder to find, and many had left to work on the railroad.

By 1931 there were only 16 Chinese residents in town. In 1938, after the Won Lim Miao had been robbed of many of its furnishings, which were quickly recovered and returned, Weaverville resident Moon Lim Lee was appointed its trustee in acknowledgement of the temple’s historical significance. For nearly 20 years Mr. Lee tirelessly promoted the temple as a statewide treasure that should be preserved for all Californians to appreciate. In 1956 Mr. Lee finally saw his dream fulfilled when the Joss House became a part of the California State Park System.

Every February during Chinese New Year and every Fourth of July weekend the Weaverville Joss House Association holds a Lion Dance celebration that draws hundreds of visitors to the park.


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Dr. Nico is board certified in Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology. A graduate of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Dr. Nico completed his residency in Neurology and a fellowship in Clinical Neurophysiology at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. He concluded a fellowship in sleep medicine at the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. He is a member of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. ","available":false>,<"title":"Margaret Nordell, MD","permalink":"https://www.trinityhealth.org/providers/margaret-nordell/","specialty":" Obstetrics & Gynecology ","specialty_name":"Obstetrics & Gynecology","image_url":"https://www.trinityhealth.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Margaret-Nordell-332x250.jpg","phone":"701-857-5703","content":"

A North Dakota native, Dr. Nordell practiced obstetrics and gynecology in the San Francisco area before returning to North Dakota in 1993 to join Trinity Medical Group. Sheu0027s an advocate for womenu0027s health with a particular interest in problems related to adolescence, pregnancy, osteoporosis, and menopause. Dr. Nordell is board certified in obstetrics and gynecology and a fellow of the American College of Obstetrics & Gynecology. ","available":false>,<"title":"Casmiar I Nwaigwe, MD","permalink":"https://www.trinityhealth.org/providers/casmiar-i-nwaigwe/","specialty":" Infectious Disease ","specialty_name":"Infectious Disease","image_url":"https://www.trinityhealth.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/CasmiarI-Nwaigwe-332x250.jpg","phone":"701-857-7930","content":"

Casmiar I. Nwaigwe is board certified in Infectious Diseases. He offers expert consultation and treatment of illnesses caused by microorganisms, including bacterial and viral infections, HIV, pneumonia, wound infections and Lyme disease. He also consults on the rational use of antibiotics and treatment of resistant bacteria as well as providing advice to international travelers. Dr. Nwaigwe (pronounced WIG-way) received his medical degree from the University of Lagos in his home country of Nigeria. He completed a three-year Internal Medicine residency and three-year Infectious Diseases fellowship at the University of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania, where he received awards for his scholarly study and research. He is a member of numerous professional organizations, including the Infectious Disease Society of America, American College of Physicians, and the Society of Internal Medicine. ","available":false>,<"title":"Cordelia Nwankwo, FNP-C","permalink":"https://www.trinityhealth.org/providers/cordelia-nwankwo/","specialty":" Family Medicine - Trinity Homes ","specialty_name":"Family Medicine - Trinity Homes","image_url":"https://www.trinityhealth.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Cordelia-Nwankwo-332x250.jpg","phone":"701-857-5800","content":"

A member of our team of providers at Trinity Homes, Cordelia Nwankwo, FNP-C, is board certified by the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners. She works with facility staff and medical providers to address the medical needs of nursing home residents. A graduate of Kingwood College in Texas, she worked as a licensed vocational nurse in hospitals and long term care settings before earning her Bachelor of Science in nursing from Grand Canyon University, Phoenix, AZ. She also practiced as a medical/surgical and step down ICU nurse at hospitals in Houston and Arkansas. She completed her Masters of Science in nursing from University of Central Arkansas in 2016.u00a0 A member of Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing, Cordelia is married to anesthesiologists, John Nwankwo, MD, and they have three children. ","available":false>,<"title":"Ronny Meunier, MD","permalink":"https://www.trinityhealth.org/providers/ronny-meunier/","specialty":" Psychiatry ","specialty_name":"Psychiatry","image_url":"https://www.trinityhealth.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Ronny-Meunier-2-332x250.jpg","phone":"701-857-2360","content":"

Ron Meunier, M.D., is a psychiatrist specializing in behavioral health, a branch of medicine that studies and treats mental disorders including various affective, behavioral, cognitive, and perceptual disorders. He joined Trinity Health in January 2011.u00a0 Dr. Meunier earned his Bachelor of Arts in Psychology (Honors) from the University of Alberta, Edmonton, in 1995, and received training in Marriage and Family Therapy Loma Linda University in California.u00a0 He earnedu00a0his Master of Science in Clinical Psychology from the University of Alaska,u00a0Anchorage, in 1999 and a Medical Degree from the Medical University of the Americas in Saint Kitts and Nevis in 2007.u00a0 Dr. Meunier was a Masters Level Clinician at the Southcentral Counseling Center, Anchorage, Alaska, from 1998 tou00a02002.u00a0 He served as a Psychology Intern at the Alaska Psychiatric Institute, Anchorage,u00a0from September 1997 to April 1998.u00a0 From July 2007 to June 2011, Dr. Meunier served as a PGY4 Resident at the Carilion Clinic - Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine Psychiatry Residency Program (formerly University of Virginia, Roanoke-Salem Program), Roanoke, Va. ","available":false>,<"title":"Badie Alakech, MD","permalink":"https://www.trinityhealth.org/providers/badie-alakech/","specialty":" Pathology ","specialty_name":"Pathology","image_url":"https://www.trinityhealth.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Badie-Alakech-2-332x250.jpg","phone":"701-857-5214","content":"

Badie Alakech, MD, is board certifiedu00a0anatomic and clinical pathology. A graduate of the University of Damascus Faculty of Medicine in Syria, he completed residency training in Pathology at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas. His training also includes post-doctoral research at the University of Texas School of Public Health in Houston and a fellowship in transfusion medicine at Bonfils Blood Center, Denver, Colorado. Prior to joining Trinity Health he was associated with the Pathology Associates of Albuquerque, New Mexico. ","available":false>]'>


A History of Greatness

“Our mission from the day we opened has been to serve the broadest population possible. We are proud of the academic, geographic, racial, ethnic and economic diversity found in our school. Our doors will remain wide open for those who seek a caring community of teachers and learners, rooted in the Gospel message of Jesus Christ.”

Robert J. Mullen Ed.D., President, Trinity High School

Trinity first opened its doors in 1953, when Archbishop John Floersh anticipated the growth of Louisville’s eastern suburbs by choosing the site of Holy Trinity School, a former Catholic church and grade school in St. Matthews. That first freshman class numbered 106 students. With the Catholic tradition of teaching and learning firmly embedded in the buildings that became Trinity, the school is now more like a small college campus comprising about 1,200 students.

Our mission: Trinity is a Catholic, college-preparatory high school, forming men of faith and men of character.


Your personalized path spans a global breadth of history.

The department of history offers students the opportunity to explore Africa, the Ancient World, Asia, Europe, Latin America, the Middle East, and the United States. Students may elect to study history on a broad scale, or focus their scope on the complexities of a specific region or era. Our small class sizes encourage close work with professors who are active and accomplished scholars. Trinity's history department also works cooperatively with other departments to offer a wide array of interdisciplinary majors and minors.

Interdisciplinary Programs

The study of history is nourished by the examination of other disciplines. Trinity's history department works cooperatively with other departments to offer a wide array of interdisciplinary majors and minors.


What does the Bible teach about the Trinity?

The most difficult thing about the Christian concept of the Trinity is that there is no way to perfectly and completely understand it. The Trinity is a concept that is impossible for any human being to fully understand, let alone explain. God is infinitely greater than we are therefore, we should not expect to be able to fully understand Him. The Bible teaches that the Father is God, that Jesus is God, and that the Holy Spirit is God. The Bible also teaches that there is only one God. Though we can understand some facts about the relationship of the different Persons of the Trinity to one another, ultimately, it is incomprehensible to the human mind. However, this does not mean the Trinity is not true or that it is not based on the teachings of the Bible.

The Trinity is one God existing in three Persons. Understand that this is not in any way suggesting three Gods. Keep in mind when studying this subject that the word “Trinity” is not found in Scripture. This is a term that is used to attempt to describe the triune God—three coexistent, co-eternal Persons who are God. Of real importance is that the concept represented by the word “Trinity” does exist in Scripture. The following is what God’s Word says about the Trinity:

1) There is one God (Deuteronomy 6:4 1 Corinthians 8:4 Galatians 3:20 1 Timothy 2:5).

2) The Trinity consists of three Persons (Genesis 1:1, 26 3:22 11:7 Isaiah 6:8, 48:16, 61:1 Matthew 3:16-17, 28:19 2 Corinthians 13:14). In Genesis 1:1, the Hebrew plural noun "Elohim" is used. In Genesis 1:26, 3:22, 11:7 and Isaiah 6:8, the plural pronoun for “us” is used. The word "Elohim" and the pronoun “us” are plural forms, definitely referring in the Hebrew language to more than two. While this is not an explicit argument for the Trinity, it does denote the aspect of plurality in God. The Hebrew word for "God," "Elohim," definitely allows for the Trinity.

In Isaiah 48:16 and 61:1, the Son is speaking while making reference to the Father and the Holy Spirit. Compare Isaiah 61:1 to Luke 4:14-19 to see that it is the Son speaking. Matthew 3:16-17 describes the event of Jesus’ baptism. Seen in this passage is God the Holy Spirit descending on God the Son while God the Father proclaims His pleasure in the Son. Matthew 28:19 and 2 Corinthians 13:14 are examples of three distinct Persons in the Trinity.

3) The members of the Trinity are distinguished one from another in various passages. In the Old Testament, “LORD” is distinguished from “Lord” (Genesis 19:24 Hosea 1:4). The LORD has a Son (Psalm 2:7, 12 Proverbs 30:2-4). The Spirit is distinguished from the “LORD” (Numbers 27:18) and from “God” (Psalm 51:10-12). God the Son is distinguished from God the Father (Psalm 45:6-7 Hebrews 1:8-9). In the New Testament, Jesus speaks to the Father about sending a Helper, the Holy Spirit (John 14:16-17). This shows that Jesus did not consider Himself to be the Father or the Holy Spirit. Consider also all the other times in the Gospels where Jesus speaks to the Father. Was He speaking to Himself? No. He spoke to another Person in the Trinity—the Father.

4) Each member of the Trinity is God. The Father is God (John 6:27 Romans 1:7 1 Peter 1:2). The Son is God (John 1:1, 14 Romans 9:5 Colossians 2:9 Hebrews 1:8 1 John 5:20). The Holy Spirit is God (Acts 5:3-4 1 Corinthians 3:16).

5) There is subordination within the Trinity. Scripture shows that the Holy Spirit is subordinate to the Father and the Son, and the Son is subordinate to the Father. This is an internal relationship and does not deny the deity of any Person of the Trinity. This is simply an area which our finite minds cannot understand concerning the infinite God. Concerning the Son see Luke 22:42, John 5:36, John 20:21, and 1 John 4:14. Concerning the Holy Spirit see John 14:16, 14:26, 15:26, 16:7, and especially John 16:13-14.

6) The individual members of the Trinity have different tasks. The Father is the ultimate source or cause of the universe (1 Corinthians 8:6 Revelation 4:11) divine revelation (Revelation 1:1) salvation (John 3:16-17) and Jesus’ human works (John 5:17 14:10). The Father initiates all of these things.

The Son is the agent through whom the Father does the following works: the creation and maintenance of the universe (1 Corinthians 8:6 John 1:3 Colossians 1:16-17) divine revelation (John 1:1, 16:12-15 Matthew 11:27 Revelation 1:1) and salvation (2 Corinthians 5:19 Matthew 1:21 John 4:42). The Father does all these things through the Son, who functions as His agent.

The Holy Spirit is the means by whom the Father does the following works: creation and maintenance of the universe (Genesis 1:2 Job 26:13 Psalm 104:30) divine revelation (John 16:12-15 Ephesians 3:5 2 Peter 1:21) salvation (John 3:6 Titus 3:5 1 Peter 1:2) and Jesus’ works (Isaiah 61:1 Acts 10:38). Thus, the Father does all these things by the power of the Holy Spirit.

There have been many attempts to develop illustrations of the Trinity. However, none of the popular illustrations are completely accurate. The egg (or apple) fails in that the shell, white, and yolk are parts of the egg, not the egg in themselves, just as the skin, flesh, and seeds of the apple are parts of it, not the apple itself. The Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are not parts of God each of them is God. The water illustration is somewhat better, but it still fails to adequately describe the Trinity. Liquid, vapor, and ice are forms of water. The Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are not forms of God, each of them is God. So, while these illustrations may give us a picture of the Trinity, the picture is not entirely accurate. An infinite God cannot be fully described by a finite illustration.

The doctrine of the Trinity has been a divisive issue throughout the entire history of the Christian church. While the core aspects of the Trinity are clearly presented in God’s Word, some of the side issues are not as explicitly clear. The Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Spirit is God—but there is only one God. That is the biblical doctrine of the Trinity. Beyond that, the issues are, to a certain extent, debatable and non-essential. Rather than attempting to fully define the Trinity with our finite human minds, we would be better served by focusing on the fact of God’s greatness and His infinitely higher nature. “Oh, the depth of the riches of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable his judgments, and his paths beyond tracing out! Who has known the mind of the Lord? Or who has been his counselor?” (Romans 11:33-34).

Below is the best symbol for the Trinity we are aware of (click to expand):


Trinity’s History

Trinity proudly completed its SOC 2 Type I and Type II attestations in January of 2019 and July of 2019 respectively. SOC 2 is an auditing procedure that brings assurance to banks and lender organizations because it requires service providers to securely manage data.

For more than 40 years, IABC's Gold Quill Awards have recognized and awarded excellence in strategic communication worldwide. In 2020, Trinity was awarded an international Gold Quill of Excellence for “Trinity Giftology,” a strategeic appreciation and relationship marketing campaign designed to stay top of mind with its current customers.

In March of 2020, Trinity renewed its SOC 2 attestation, the industry's most comprehensive certification within the SOC protocol.


History of Trinity

Trinity began as a Sunday School mission in 1890 at what was then the outskirts of town. In March of 1891, 68 members petitioned their parent church, First Lutheran in Chambersburg, for a charter to be called Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church and their petition was granted.

Trinity has had 5 different buildings as it’s place of worship and study in its life as a congregation, from a wooden chapel to the octagonal chapel which is on many historic maps of Chambersburg. And then our current Sanctuary was built in 1929, a Sunday School building was added in 1951 and in 1961 the octagonal chapel was torn down and the educational building added.

Today Trinity is known for many blessed ministries. The variety of worship is a strength with traditional and choral music as part of weekly worship and contemporary music is part of the Sunday morning worship offering.

Education continues to be a strength with a unique Confirmation Program using mentors, retreats, and service. Opportunities for education and study are offered throughout the week. And mission trips and local service can be found regularly during the year including projects with Youthworks, summer Work Camps, the Chambersburg Project, and Hope in Haiti.

Some of Trinity’s community ministries include being a Kathryn’s Kloset distributor, the annual Blessing of the Animals, being a partner congregation of LARC (Lutheran Anglicans and Roman Catholics).

In 2010, Trinity established 4 broad goals during a period of spiritual discernment to direct its future ministry:

  1. Intentionally move to function like a “program size” congregation
  2. Focus on quality adult study, small group ministries, and prayer
  3. Reach out to children in the city
  4. Improve building and grounds


Mission Statement:

“Seed – Planting and Growing in our Faith
Sow – Sharing the word of God with our community
Steward – Entrusting God to our care
Service – Showing the love of God with our community”


Watch the video: Ύμνοι στην Αγία Τριάδα, ψάλλει ο χορός μοναζουσών της Ιεράς Μονής Αγίου Στεφάνου, Μετεώρων