27 December 1942

27 December 1942

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27 December 1942

December 1942


War at Sea

German submarine U-356 sunk with all hands off the Azores

The Great Los Angeles Air Raid Terrified Citizens—Even Though No Bombs Were Dropped

This past Saturday, residents of Hawaii were alarmed as cell phones across the island state chimed with an early morning emergency alert. “Ballistic missile threat inbound to Hawaii. Seek immediate shelter. This is not a drill,” the message read. With North Korea launching numerous missiles throughout 2017, and previously threatening to attack the U.S. territory of Guam, Hawaiian citizens—and countless tourists—were quick to assume the worst. For 38 minutes, chaos and panic reigned as people abandoned their cars on the highway to seek shelter before finally receiving word that the alert had been sent on accident.

As terrifying as the experience was for those on the archipelago, it’s not the first time an impending attack has turned out to be a false alarm. Take the Battle of Los Angeles, for instance. Never heard of it? That’s because nothing actually happened. Often relegated to a footnote in the history of World War II, the “battle” is a prime example of what can happen when the military and civilians expect an invasion at any moment.

The first months of 1942 were strained ones for the West Coast. After the unanticipated attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 resulted in the deaths of 2,403 Americans, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war and join the Allied Powers. At that point, Los Angeles already ranked first of all cities in America in production of aircraft, and the city’s San Pedro Bay housed an enormous naval armada. By October 1941, the shipbuilding industry in the city had jumped to 22,000 employees, up from 1,000 only two years earlier. With its vulnerable location on the Pacific Ocean, and noticeably growing manufacturing centers, Angelenos feared their city might be the next target for Japanese fleets.

“We imagined parachutes dropping. We imagined the hills of Hollywood on fire. We imagined hand-to-hand combat on Rodeo Drive,” actor and writer Buck Henry said of the tense atmosphere.

Those fears weren’t entirely unfounded. While the Japanese weren’t planning on launching an attack by air—doing so would require bringing their aircraft carriers within range of the U.S. military, risking their loss—they did send submarines. On December 23, 1941, those submarines sank the oil tanker Montebello off California’s coast, and then attacked the lumber ship SS Absaroka the very next day, causing minor damage and killing one crew member.

But their real coup came on February 23, when the cruiser submarine I-17, captained by Kozo Nishini, entered the Santa Barbara Channel and began firing on the Ellwood Oil Field, just 10 miles north of Santa Barbara.

Detail map of Ellwood and Ellwood Offshore Oil Field, showing location of Luton-Bell Well No. 17, damaged by Japanese shelling 23 Feb 1942 (Wikimedia Commons)

“It was a real pinprick attack with highly inaccurate gunfire. They only fired between 16 and 24 shells and actually missed a very huge petrol container that would’ve caused major damage,” says historian Mark Felton, author of The Fujita Plan: Japanese Attacks on the United States & Australia During the Second World War, slated to be re-released by Thistle Publishing.

Even though the Ellwood attack caused little damage and no loss of life, it succeeded in taking a psychological toll—exactly what the Japanese intended, Felton says. “[The attack] created mass panic along the coast because for the first time the Japanese had actually physically hit the continental U.S., and that happened in the middle of the night. At this point the U.S. has no ability to send aircraft up to deal with that, because they had no radar. It gave the feeling to the American West Coast that they were highly vulnerable.”

Those jitters carried into the following days, and around 1:45 a.m. on February 25, the newly developed coastal radar picked up a blip: an unidentified aerial target 120 miles west of Los Angeles and heading straight for the city. By 2:15 two more radar sites confirmed the object, and at 2:25 the city’s air raid warning system went off. Then the shooting began.

“Residents from Santa Monica southward to Long Beach, covering a thirty-nine mile arc, watched from rooftops, hills and beaches as tracer bullets, with golden-yellowish tints, and shells like skyrockets offered the first real show of the Second World War on the United States mainland,” the New York Times reported the next day.

“I remember my mom being so nervous her teeth were chattering. It was really scary,” said Anne Ruhge to Liesl Bradner of Military History. “We thought it was another invasion.”

By 7:21 a.m. the regional warning center finally issued an all clear, and the cleanup began. The incident had indirectly resulted in five casualties, due to car accidents that happened during the blackout and heart attacks caused by shock. Anti-aircraft batteries had fired off more than 1,400 rounds, none of which hit any enemy aircraft: because there hadn’t been any enemy aircraft to begin with. The likeliest explanation for what had appeared on the radar was a stray weather balloon drifting toward land.

But in the immediate aftermath, the U.S. Navy and U.S. Army disagreed about what had actually happened, writes John Geoghegan in Operation Storm: Japans Top Secret Submarines and Their Plan to Change the Course of World War II. While Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson claimed as many as 15 aircraft had flown over Los Angeles, Navy Secretary Frank Knox said, “As far as I know the whole raid was a false alarm… attributed to jittery nerves.”

Junidhi Mikuriya - Japanese submarine attacks coast of California (Wikimedia Commons)

In the end, no trace of enemy aircraft or soldiers were ever discovered, and the military was forced to admit the “Battle” of Los Angeles was a false alarm. But it did galvanize the city and the military, says Arthur C. Verge, professor of history at El Camino College. “As bad as the Battle of Los Angeles was, I think it was a wake up call. Some people saw [the war] as far way, in the Hawaiian Islands, but now it was real, right next door.” That meant people were more willing to support the military with small actions, like rationing food or selling war bonds.  

In fact, the false alarm air raid has continued to play a role in the city’s history,  says Stephen Nelson, director and curator of the Fort MacArthur Museum in San Pedro. For the past 15 years, the museum has held an annual reenactment event to commemorate the Great Los Angeles Air Raid, resulting in Nelson spending years doing research for a book on the raid, which he hopes will be published sometime next year.

“We started the event because it was something unique we could do to make money. Part of the battle actually occurred on the hillside [where the museum is located] so that’s an original part of our history,” Nelson says.

In his research, Nelson spoke with 10 veterans of the war who participated in the air raid, and learned how important the incident was to them. “Almost every one of them said that’s where they got their first experience with battle conditions,” Nelson says. Even if the attack didn’t include any enemy fighters, it still felt as terrifying and important as if it had been real.

But the repercussions went far beyond the experience of air wardens pulled into action that night. This “attack” came only days after President Roosevelt’s executive order 9066—the one that authorized the internment of Japanese-Americans. Roosevelt signed it in large part due to fears that Japanese-Americans were collaborating with the Japanese military. “Prior to the raid there was a great deal of suspicion,” Felton says. “The LAPD reported that Japanese citizens had been signaling Japanese aircraft, although there’s no evidence for that.”

Lack of evidence, however, made no difference to military generals. By March 2 they had issued a public proclamation dividing California, Washington, Oregon and Arizona into two military zones, with one as a restricted zone from which all people of Japanese ancestry would soon be banned. By the end of the war, nearly 120,000 people—most of them American citizens—had been forcibly removed to internment camps across the country. The last of those camps wasn’t closed until March 1946.

“The battle has pretty much been a footnote in history, for at least my lifetime,” Nelson says. “I think it deserves more than that.”

27 December 1942 - History

Recipients of draft deferments during the Vietnam War era. Note that some of these men enlisted in the armed forces despite a deferment.

A total of 1,857,304 men were drafted between August 1964 and February 1973, drawing from the pool of men born on or before 1955.

  • 1-A Ready for immediate induction. (no deferment)
  • 1-D Member of a Reserve component, or student taking military training
  • 1-Y Qualified for military service only in time of national emergency (classification eliminated 10-Dec-1971)
  • 2-S Student deferment (temporary delay)
  • 3-A Extreme hardship to dependents
  • 4-F Unqualified for military service (exemption)

NameOccupationBirthDeathKnown for
Kareem Abdul-Jabbar NBA records for most minutes, most points
Elliott Abrams Asst. Secy. of State involved in Iran-Contra
Lamar Alexander US Senator from Tennessee
Muhammad Ali Floated like butterfly, stung like bee
Samuel Alito US Supreme Court Justice
Wayne Allard US Senator from Colorado, 1997-2009
George Allen US Senator from Virginia, 2001-07
John Ashcroft US Attorney General, 2001-05
Richard Axel Odorant receptors and olfactory organization
Gary Bauer Family Research Council
Bob Beauprez Congressman from Colorado, 2003-07
William Bennett Former Drug Czar and gambling man
Joseph Biden Vice President of the United States
Don Black Stormfront.org founder
Michael Bloomberg Mayor of New York City, 2002-13
Roy Blunt US Senator from Missouri
Neal Boortz Libertarian radio host
Bill Bradley US Senator from New Jersey, 1979-97
Phil Bredesen Governor of Tennessee, 2003-11
L. Paul Bremer Director of the Iraq Provisional Authority
George W. Bush 43rd US President, 2001-09
Richard Carpenter The Carpenters
Saxby Chambliss US Senator from Georgia
Dick Cheney US Vice President, 2001-09
Tom Clancy The Hunt for Red October
Bill Clinton 42nd US President, 1993-2001
Norm Coleman US Senator from Minnesota, 2003-09
Pete Coors Coors scion
Howard Dean Governor of Vermont, 1991-2003
Tom DeLay Former House Majority Leader
Mike DeWine Attorney General of Ohio
Brian J. Donnelly Congressman from Massachusetts, 1979-93
Roy P. Dyson Congressman from Maryland, 1981-91
David Eisenhower Camp David namesake
Daniel Ellsberg Pentagon Papers source
James Fallows Atlantic Monthly
Bobby Fischer Eccentric chess grandmaster
Steve Forbes Owner and publisher of Forbes magazine
Al Franken US Senator from Minnesota
Bob Franks Congressman from New Jersey, 1993-2001
Bill Frist US Senate Majority Leader, 2003-07
Max Gail Det. Wojciehowicz on Barney Miller
Dick Gephardt Congressman from Missouri, 1977-2005
Newt Gingrich Speaker of the House, 1995-99
Rudy Giuliani Mayor of New York City, 1994-2001
Al Gore US Vice President under Clinton
Phil Gramm US Senator from Texas, 1985-2002
Lee Greenwood God Bless the U.S.A.
Judd Gregg US Senator from New Hampshire, 1993-2011
Arlo Guthrie Alice's Restaurant
George Hamilton Well-tanned celebrity
Robert Hanssen Russian mole inside the FBI
Dennis Hastert Speaker of the House, 1999-2006
Roger Hedgecock Mayor of San Diego, 1983-85
Douglas Hofstadter Godel, Escher, Bach
Brit Hume Fox News DC correspondent
John Irving The World According to Garp
Davy Jones Frontman for The Monkees
Ted Kaczynski The Unabomber
Andy Kaufman Brilliant comic, prankster, professional wrestler
Bob Kerrey Governor and Senator from Nebraska
Alan Keyes Illinois carpetbagger
Stephen King The Shining
Bruce Kovner Caxton Associates billionaire
Dennis Kucinich Congressman, Ohio 10th
Ken Lay CEO of Enron, 1986-2002
Ron Lewis Congressman from Kentucky, 1994-2009
Lewis Libby Cheney's former Chief of Staff
Joseph Lieberman Former US Senator from Connecticut
Rush Limbaugh Conservative talk show host
Trent Lott US Senator from Mississippi, 1989-2007
Dan Lungren Congressman, California 3rd
David Mamet Glengarry Glen Ross
Jim Marshall Congressman from Georgia, 2003-11
Chris Matthews Hardball with Chris Matthews
Mitch McConnell US Senator from Kentucky
Michael Medved Traditional values pundit, film critic
Thomas Menino Mayor of Boston for twenty years
Bob Metcalfe Co-Inventor of Ethernet
John Milius Conan the Barbarian
James C. Miller III Conservative economist
Dan Moldea Muckraker
Joe Namath Football player and pantyhose wearer
Ted Nugent Rock star, bowhunting enthusiast
Bill O'Reilly The O'Reilly Factor
P. J. O'Rourke Political satirist
Bill Owens Governor of Colorado, 1999-2007
Carl Paladino Buffalo real estate baron
Gram Parsons Flying Burrito Brothers
George Pataki Governor of New York, 1995-2006
John Perkins Confessions of an Economic Hit Man
Dan Quayle Vice President under George H.W. Bush
Marc Racicot Governor of Montana, 1993-2001
Robert Reich US Secretary of Labor, 1993-97
Bill Richardson Governor of New Mexico, 2003-11
Donald L. Ritter Congressman from Pennsylvania, 1979-93
Dana Rohrabacher Congressman, California 46th
Mitt Romney Governor of Massachusetts, 2003-07
Karl Rove Political Strategist to George W. Bush
Robert Shapiro One of OJ Simpson's attorneys
Ron Silver Wiseguy
O. J. Simpson Searching tirelessly for the real killers
Richard E. Smalley Co-Discovered fullerines
David Souter US Supreme Court Justice, 1990-2009
Bruce Springsteen The Boss
Sylvester Stallone Rocky, Rambo
Ken Starr Special Prosecutor, Clinton's impeachment
David Stockman Ronald Reagan's chief economist
John Stossel Libertarian reporter
Tom Tancredo Congressman from Colorado, 1999-2009
John B. Taylor Council of Economic Advisers, 1989-91
Clarence Thomas US Supreme Court Justice
Garry Trudeau Doonesbury
Donald Trump The Donald
Scott Turow Presumed Innocent
Steven Tyler Frontman for Aerosmith
Mark Udall Former US Senator from Colorado
Douglas A. Warner III CEO of JP Morgan, 1995-2000
Henry Waxman Congressman, California 30th
Daniel A. Webster Congressman, Florida 10th
Andrew Weil New age ethnopharmacologist
Bill Weld Governor of Massachusetts, 1991-97
Curt Weldon Congressman from Pennsylvania, 1987-2007
George Will Conservative pundit, baseball lover
Joseph Wilson Ambassador to Gabon, Valerie Plame's husband
Paul Wolfowitz President of the World Bank, 2005-07
Steve Wozniak Co-Founder of Apple Computer

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27 December 1942 - History

World War II On The Air: Edward R. Murrow And The Broadcasts That Riveted A Nation

    -- Dan Rather -- Edward R. Murrow -- Edward R. Murrow and William L. Shirer -- Edward R. Murrow -- William L. Shirer -- Edward R. Murrow and William L. Shirer -- Mary Marvin Breckenridge -- William L. Shirer and Thomas Grandon -- Edward R. Murrow -- Eric Servareid -- Cecil Brown -- Edward R. Murrow -- William L. Shirer -- William L. Shirer -- Edward R. Murrow and Eric Servareid -- William L. Shirer -- Edward R. Murrow -- Edward R. Murrow -- Edward R. Murrow - December 24, 1940 -- Edward R. Murrow - April 16, 1941 -- Edward R. Murrow -- Larry LeSueur -- Eric Servareid -- Franklin Delano Roosevelt -- Cecil Brown -- Larry LeSueur -- Charles Collingwood -- Winston Burdett -- Winston Burdett -- Eric Servareid -- Winston Burdett -- Edward R. Murrow
  1. Capture Of Rome - June 5, 1944 -- Winston Burdett -- Edward R. Murrow -- Edward R. Murrow -- Richard C. Hottelet -- Charles Collingwood -- Richard C. Hottelet -- Larry LeSueur -- Edward R. Murrow -- Richard C. Hottelet -- Howard K. Smith -- Bill Downs -- Edward R. Murrow -- William L. Shirer -- Edward R. Murrow -- Edward R. Murrow

Professor Emeritus Rick Musser :: [email protected]
University of Kansas, School of Journalism & Mass Communications, 1976-2008

American Decades © International Thompson Publishing Company

Original site designed May 2003 by graduate students Heather Attig and Tony Esparza
First update: January 2004 by gradute students Staci Wolfe and Lisa Coble
Second update: May 2007 by graduate students Chris Raine and Jack Hope
Complete graphical and content revision: December 2007 by graduate student Jack Hope

This site was built by students in Rick Musser's Journalism History class as a study aid. While both the teacher and the graduate students who prepared the site have tried to assure that the information is accurate and original, you will certainly find many examples of copyrighted materials designated for teaching and research as part of a college level history of journalism course. That material is considered "fair use” under Title 17, Chapter 1, Sec. 107 of the Fair Use Statute and the Copyright Act of 1976. Contact [email protected] with further questions.

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Heroes Over the Philippines

Even though the American Air Force was suffering heavy losses, there were some bright spots, and some of them were contributed by the Filipino fighter pilots. Captain Jesus Villamor, squadron commander of the Filipino 6th Squadron, broke up a Japanese bomber formation on December 10, for which he was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross. One of his pilots, Lieutenant Jose Gozar, attempted to ram a Japanese bomber after his guns jammed. Although the Japanese bomber was too fast for the slower P-26, the attempt caused the enemy pilot to break off his bomb run and flee the area.

Two days later, on December 12, Villamor and six of his men again broke up a Japanese formation before they were attacked by Zeros. Luckily, only two of the P-26s were lost, but the mission was the last interception effort by the Filipinos. They joined their American peers in the reconnaissance role.

After the fighter pilots were officially ordered off combat operations, they continued to take the fight to the Japanese when the opportunity presented itself. They took advantage of their apparent weakness by suddenly striking where and when they were least expected. Lieutenant Grant M. Mahony was on a reconnaissance mission on December 11 when he decided to attack a Japanese-held radio station and the airfield at Legaspi. After he was jumped by nine Zeros, Mahony took his P-40 down to treetop level around an 8,000-foot mountain, then led the enemy planes right back over their own field, where he calmly made another strafing pass!

One of the most exceptional pilots of the Pacific War, Mahony had already realized that the P-40 was faster than the Zero at low altitude. When he was done strafing, he led the Japanese back into the mountains and lost them, then headed home to Nichols Field. Mahony was later killed in action (January 3, 1945) and, like Kelly and Villamor, received the Distinguished Service Cross, posthumously.

In another spectacular effort, Lieutenant Boyd D. “Buzz” Wagner took on two Zeros, then wiped out several others on the ground at Aparri. A trained aeronautical engineer, Wagner knew the P-40 inside and out, and when the two Japanese appeared on his tail, he let them get as close as he felt he could, then throttled back his engine. The startled Japanese flew past the suddenly slowing Kittyhawk, and Wagner promptly shot them both down. He then headed for Aparri at low level to find a dozen Japanese planes on the strip. Wagner strafed the strip and left five Japanese planes burning. It was only when his fuel supply began to dwindle that he returned to his home base.

On December 16, Wagner and Lieutenant Russel M. Church, along with a third pilot, Allison W. Strauss, were dive-bombing an enemy airstrip at Vigan. As they went into a dive against the parked enemy planes, Wagner and Church came under intense ground fire. Church’s plane was hit and set afire but, instead of bailing out, he stayed on his run, released his bombs, then crashed to his death. Wagner continued to pummel the field he and Church accounted for nearly 20 planes on the ground. Wagner, along with Church’s family, received the Distinguished Service Cross.

Captain Jesus A. Villamor, Filipino 6th Squadron commander, earned a DSC for his actions on December 10.

The Eastern Front, October 1943–April 1944

By the end of the first week of October 1943, the Red Army had established several bridgeheads on the right bank of the Dnieper River. Then, while General N.F. Vatutin’s drive against Kiev was engaging the Germans’ attention, General Ivan Stepanovich Konev suddenly pushed so far forward from the Kremenchug bridgehead (more than halfway downstream between Kiev and Dnepropetrovsk) that the German forces within the great bend of the Dnieper to the south would have been isolated if Manstein had not stemmed the Soviet advance just in time to extricate them. By early November the Red Army had reached the mouth of the Dnieper also, and the Germans in Crimea were isolated. Kiev, too, fell to Vatutin on November 6, and Zhitomir, 80 miles to the west, and Korosten, north of Zhitomir, fell in the next 12 days. Farther north, however, the Germans, who had already fallen back from Smolensk to a line covering the upper Dnieper, repelled with little difficulty five rather predictable Soviet thrusts toward Minsk in the last quarter of 1943.

Vatutin’s forces from the Zhitomir–Korosten sector advanced westward across the prewar Polish frontier on January 4, 1944, and, though another German flank attack, by troops drawn from adjacent fronts, slowed them down, they had reached Lutsk, 100 miles farther west, a month later. Vatutin’s left wing, meanwhile, wheeled southward to converge with Konev’s right, so that 10 German divisions were encircled near Korsun, on the Dnieper line south of Kiev. Vainly trying to save those 10 divisions, the Germans had to abandon Nikopol, in the Dnieper bend far to the south, with its valuable manganese mines.

March 1944 saw a triple thrust by the Red Army: Zhukov, succeeding to Vatutin’s command, drove southwest toward Tarnopol, to outflank the Germans on the upper stretches of the southern Bug River. General Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky, in the south, advanced across the mouth of the latter river from that of the Dnieper and between them Konev, striking over the central stretch of the Bug, reached the Dniester, 70 miles ahead, and succeeded in crossing it. When Zhukov had crossed the upper Prut River and Konev was threatening Iaşi on the Moldavian stretch of the river, the Carpathian Mountains were the only natural barrier remaining between the Red Army and the Hungarian Plain. German troops occupied Hungary on March 20, since Hitler suspected that the Hungarian regent, Admiral Miklós Horthy, might not resist the Red Army to the utmost.

A German counterstroke from the Lwów area of southern Poland against Zhukov’s extended flank early in April not only put an end to the latter’s overhasty pressure on the Tatar (Yablonitsky) Pass through the Carpathians but also made possible the withdrawal of some of the German forces endangered by the Red Army’s March operation. Konev, too, was halted in front of Iaşi but his left swung southward down the Dniester to converge with Malinovsky’s drive on Odessa. That great port fell to the Red Army on April 10. On May 9 the Germans in Crimea abandoned Sevastopol, caught as they were between Soviet pincers from the mainland north of the isthmus and from the east across the Strait of Kerch.

Important Events From This day in History January 27th

1967 : The Outer Space Treaty which banned the placing of nuclear weapons or any other weapons of mass destruction in orbit of Earth is signed by 60 countries of the world including the two most important superpowers at the time The Soviet Union and The United States Of America who both had large Space Exploration programmes and Large Nuclear programmes. This was an important treaty because if any country was to place Nuclear Weapons or other Weapons of Mass Destruction in Orbit no country in the world would be safe.

The Red Army liberates the Nazi's biggest concentration camp at Auschwitz in southern Poland. During the concentration camps existence it is believed up to 1 million Jews were murdered ,75,000 Poles, 21,000 Gypsies, and 15,000 Soviet POWs.

It is reported on this day that 3,500 more air troops were sent to Sahn, in Vietnam. They were sent to help fight against North Vietnam, who had just launched new shell attacks.

The Vietnam war formally ended when ministers from the United States, North and South Vietnam and the Viet Cong signed an agreement in Paris

1974 : The Brisbane River Floods causing much of the city to suffer because the river banks in many areas are higher than the surrounding plains and the floods spread over wide areas of the city of Brisbane.

2014 : Tunisia's National Constituent Assembly passed a new constitution, the first since 2011 when the former president Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali was forced from office. Of the 216 members, 200 voted to approve the new constitution. The move was made in hopes of increasing stability within the country, which has faced disagreement between various factions ever since the fall of the government in 2011.

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